Surface dynamics dominate the incorporation of charged, As+Ga, and neutral, As0Ga, antisite arsenic, and the temporal variation of reflection high-energy electron diffraction(RHEED) intensity in the low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy of (100) gallium arsenide(GaAs). A rate equation model is proposed which includes the presence and dynamics of a physisorbed arsenic (PA) layer riding the growth surface. The PA layer dictates the incorporation and concentration of As+Ga and As0Ga. Additionally, it influences the RHEED oscillations (ROs) behavior and the RO’s dependence on its coverage through its contribution to the reflected intensity. The model results for the dependence of As+Ga and As0Ga concentrations on beam equivalent pressure (BEP) and growth temperature are in good agreement with experimental data. The experimental observations can be explained based on the saturation of the PA coverage at one monolayer and the competing rate processes such as the AsGa incorporation into and evaporation from the crystalline surface. Using the same kinetic model for the temporal behavior of the surface, the contribution of the PA layer to the RHEED intensity is computed based on kinematical theory of electron diffraction. The experimental observation of the ROs during growth at high and low temperatures with no ROs in the intermediate temperature range of 300–450 °C is in good agreement with our model results. At low temperatures, the surface is covered by the PA layer whose step density depends on that of the subsurface crystalline GaAs. Thus, a temporal variation of the step density of subsurface crystalline GaAs results in ROs, but with a different step height, that of the PA layer, of 2.48 Å. At high temperatures, the crystalline GaAs is exposed to the RHEED beam due to the evaporation of the PA layer and the ROs appear due to periodic step-density oscillations with a step height of 1.41 Å, which is the Ga–As crystalline interplanar distance. At intermediate temperatures, the surface is partially covered by the PA layer resulting in RHEED reflection contributions from both surfaces covered by the PA layer and crystal. Due to the very different interplanar distances between the crystalline GaAs and the PA layers, complete destructive interference of the RHEED intensity results at a 0.5 surface coverage of the PA layer. The RO dependence on the As BEP is also presented and discussed.
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© 1999 American Vacuum Society
Dorsey, D. L.
Low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy of GaAs: A theoretical investigation of antisite incorporation and reflection high-energy diffraction oscillations.
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, 17(3),