Gambling expenditure, income, uncertainty avoidance

Document Type

Original Research Article


This study hypothesized that gambling expenditure across countries was positively related to income and negatively related to uncertainty avoidance. Statistical analyses using secondary data were conducted to test the hypotheses. The results of a multivariate linear regression using income and uncertainty avoidance as the independent variables and gambling expenditure as the dependent variable showed that the two independent variables were significantly related to gambling expenditure. The two independent variables explained 56 percent of the variance in the dependent variable. An exponential model with only income as the independent variable, however, accounted for 72 percent of the variance in gambling expenditure. The results showed that income alone accounted for a substantial amount of variance in gambling expenditure. The study discussed the implications of the results.