Evolutionary differentiation in the neotropical montane region: Molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography of Buarremon brush-finches (Aves, Emberizinae)
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
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Studies on Neotropical phylogeography have largely focused on lowland organisms. Because lowland and highland biotas have different histories and are likely affected by different processes influencing population differentiation, understanding Neotropical diversification requires detailed studies on montane taxa. We present the most comprehensive analysis of population differentiation conducted so far on a widespread group of Neotropical montane organisms, focusing on the evolutionary relationships and phylogeography of Buarremon brush-finches (Aves: Emberizidae) in montane areas from Mexico through Argentina. Sequences of mitochondrial and nuclear genes demonstrate that Buarremon is not monophyletic with respect to Arremon and Lysurus. Genetic structure revealed by mtDNA is strong in both B. brunneinucha and B. torquatus. Gene genealogies and nucleotide diversity indicate that B. brunneinucha originated in Mexico and later expanded to South America, where it followed one colonization route through the east, and one through the west of the continent. Differentiation among populations of B. torquatus was substantial, reaching 8% uncorrected sequence divergence within South America. Relationships among major lineages of B. torquatus were not fully resolved owing to rapid differentiation, but the occurrence of closely related taxa in distant locations suggests a complex history of diversification. Some Colombian populations of B. brunneinucha have affinities with populations from Venezuela and the East Andean slope of Ecuador and Peru, and others with those from the Pacific slope of Ecuador. Moreover, five divergent lineages of B. torquatus occur within Colombia, highlighting the importance of dense sampling in northwest South America for studies on diversification of widespread Neotropical lineages.
Biogeography; Birds; Buarremon; Neotropics; Phylogeography
Molecular Genetics | Ornithology | Population Biology
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Cadena, C. D.,
Ricklefs, R. E.
Evolutionary differentiation in the neotropical montane region: Molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography of Buarremon brush-finches (Aves, Emberizinae).
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 44(3),
Available at: http://digitalscholarship.unlv.edu/hrc_ornithology/25