age; ethnicity; race; colorectal cancer; Hispanic; permutation based ANCOVA
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in the United States. Notably, racial/ethnic disparities exist in both incidence and mortality.
PURPOSE: The aim of this case study was to investigate the impact of race/ethnicity on age at diagnosis of colorectal cancer in a defined population in Suffolk County, NY.
METHODS: Data were retrospectively collected on race/ethnicity, health insurance status, age at diagnosis, stage at diagnosis, gender, smoking status, alcohol intake, tumor location, and body mass index for colorectal cancer patients with medical records in the Stony Brook University Medical Center database (2005-2011). Population-based data on Hispanic and non-Hispanic Whites were obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry of New York State for an overlapping time period. Permutation-based ANCOVA and logistic regression with stepwise variable selection were conducted to identify covariates and first-order interactions associated with younger age at diagnosis and cancer stage as a dependent categorical variable. RESULTS: Of 328 colorectal cancer patients, Hispanics were diagnosed at a median younger age of 57y vs. 67y than non-Hispanic Whites (FDR = 0.001). Twenty-six percent of Hispanics were diagnosed with colorectal cancer prior to the recommended age (50y) for colorectal cancer surveillance compared to 11% of non-Hispanic Whites (FDR =0.007). Analysis of New York State registry data corroborated our findings that Hispanic colorectal cancer patients were diagnosed at a median younger age than non-Hispanic Whites. Permutation-based ANCOVA identified race/ethnicity and health insurance as significantly associated with age of diagnosis (P=0.001). Logistic regression selected (younger) age at diagnosis as being significantly associated with stage IV disease. The limitations of the case study reside in the use of self-reporting of race and ethnicity and in the small sample sizes.
CONCLUSIONS: Hispanics may be at higher risk for colorectal cancer (y) and younger age at diagnosis is associated with advanced disease.
Jennie L. Williams
Katz, Matthew; Parrish, Maryann E.; Li, Ellen; Zhang, Yuanhao; Zhu, Wei; Shroyer, Kenneth; Bergamaschi, Roberto; and Williams, Jennie L.
"The Effect of Race/Ethnicity on the Age of Colon Cancer Diagnosis,"
Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice: Vol. 6
, Article 5.
Available at: http://digitalscholarship.unlv.edu/jhdrp/vol6/iss1/5