Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
Educational & Clinical Studies
First Committee Member
Second Committee Member
Monica R. Brown
Third Committee Member
Fourth Committee Member
Richard D. Tandy
Number of Pages
Public education and teachers are under considerable scrutiny (Gibboney, 2008). With
the inception of local, state, and national demands being placed on education, teachers are faced
with many challenges (Eppley, 2015). Educational accountability measures have grown out of
the political pressures impacting educational policies (Gibboney, 2008). There is much debate
regarding whom teachers are accountable to and what they are accountable for (Ornstein, 1986;
McDermott, 2011). This scrutiny increases a teacher’s level of perceived stress.
Stress and perceptions of stress differ from person to person, making it conditional and
highly personal (Fimian, 2001; Jary, 2006). Although stress has been an area of study for many
years, academic disciplines such as psychology, sociology, and education define it differently
(Saleem & Shah, 2011). Some disciplines view stress as a process while others view it as a result
of interactions influenced by culture or customs (Prabhatt, 2011). Because stress appears to be
pervasive among educators today (Prabhatt, 2011), it is important to have an understanding of
stress as it relates to education.
The way an educator teaches and how a student learns impacts the perceived self-efficacy
of the teacher (Goroshit & Hen, 2014). Current and past educational legislation also has an effect
on teacher perceived self-efficacy (Goroshit & Hen, 2014). The efficacy beliefs of a teacher
affect how they perform in the classroom, their goals, and what they want to achieve
(Tschannen-Moran & Hoy, 2001).
Perceived teacher stress and perceived teacher self-efficacy are factors that affect both
general and special education teachers. Understanding how perceived teacher stress and
perceived teacher self-efficacy affect educators may lead to understanding what positive
variables are working with teachers, and how negative situations such as teacher attrition may be
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the following
perceived stress factors: (a) time management, (b) work-related stressors, (c) professional stress,
(d) discipline and motivation, (e) professional investment, (f) emotional manifestations,
(g) fatigue manifestations, and perceived teacher self-efficacy with general and special education
teachers. This was conducted with students in teacher education programs at a local university in the
southwestern United States. There were two surveys that were combined to create the questionnaire
that was used. These were the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (Schwarzer & Jerusalem, 1979) and the
Teacher Stress Inventory (Fimian, 1984).
The results of this study showed the correlation between perceived teacher stress and
perceived teacher self-efficacy and how they affect a teacher. Many of the studies available at the
time of this study contained more variables than perceived teacher stress and perceived teacher
self-efficacy. The results of this study also provided a starting point for future research to
determine why teacher attrition is occurring.
General education teachers; Perceived self-efficacy; Perceived stress; Special education teachers; Stress factors
Ringer, Joanne Lyn, "An Analysis of Stress and Self-~Efficacy Experienced by General and Special Educators" (2017). UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones. 3028.