Brand Awareness and Familiarity in the Secondary Brand Identity (SBI)

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Design Works





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This study aims to investigate brand awareness and familiarity in the Secondary Brand Identity (SBI) among car brands beyond logo design or brand name. Although many studies have emphasized similar approaches to provide brand loyalty through marketing strategies, this research focuses on design attributes and characteristics as to how we respond to design attributes as brand personality. Moreover, this study demonstrates a term of SBI as a significant brand entity to engage with design values in brand signature and design originality. Therefore, this study examined five hypotheses: 1) A brand awareness would be associated with SBI regardless identifying a brand logo or mark, 2) A body silhouette would be more effective than product attributes in brand awareness, 3) Brand awareness would be different between gender and age, 4) A front grill of the car would be perceived as distinctive SBI effectively, and 5) SBI would be much more effective in a luxury brand rather than others. In the design method, a total of 10 brands (the top 5 best car and the top luxury car brands in 2018 U.S. News & World Report) were selected to compare the effects/influences. A total of 106 participants responded to 20 survey questions which are comprised of two different parts for responding to a brand name of given examples of car images. The data value was collected as a correct answer to the brand name and preferences of the survey responses per each question. Overall, the result showed that participants were most effectively aware of brands with the front grill design. In this finding, the luxury brand showed more effective brand awareness in terms of the longevity of design originality. With the second part of the qualitative survey in a small group for only three luxury brands, the result appeared similar values with the large group. An additional finding through the exit interview, the front grill design was much more familiar with the headlight as a unified form when brand awareness occurs. This refers to reason that the data value in showing a front grill was much lower in low and medium-priced brands. Therefore, the result of correct answers from showing front grill with the entire front view was higher than showing only front grill through all brands. This study will develop enhanced investigation with scientific evaluation by analysis of the statistical data through the eye tracking that explores how and what people interact within car design attributes in learning brands.


Brand Awareness; Secondary Brand Identity (SBI); Car Design; Visual Perception


Art and Design | Arts and Humanities | Industrial and Product Design



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