The Electrochemical Reduction of PdCl42- and PdCl62- in Polyaniline: Influence of Pd Deposit Morphology on Methanol Oxidation in Alkaline Solution

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Electrochimica Acta





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The controlled uptake and electrochemical reduction of metal precursors PdCl42− and PdCl62− in polyaniline (PANI) is demonstrated. The formation of PANI/Pd composites is achieved with a reduction in proton doping and an increase in the oxidation of the polymer with Pd deposits physically blocking the nitrogen groups. High surface area filaments (PdCl42−) or a rough encapsulation (PdCl62−) of Pd metal on PANI are obtained. The structural differences highlight the influence of the metal precursor oxidation state on the morphology of the Pd deposits in PANI. Thermal gravimetric analysis provides an estimate of the Pd content for each composite of ∼40%. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and X-ray-excited Auger Electron Spectroscopy analyses confirm the deposition of Pd metal. The catalytic oxidation of methanol was demonstrated for both PANI/Pd composites in alkaline solutions that prohibit proton doping of the polymer. The data indicates that Pd metal acts as a solid-state dopant that may delocalize the charge on the polymer backbone to maintain conductivity. Methanol oxidation at PANI/Pd composites produced using PdCl42− was enhanced relative to the composite produced using PdCl62− and a planar Pd electrode. Comparison of PANI/Pd composite produced using PdCl42− with other Pd catalysts from the literature indicates surface poisoning is reduced when Pd is coupled with the polymer. The composite is robust and stable in alkaline solution with the charge density decreasing by 5% on the positive scan and 13% on the negative scan after 200 voltammetric cycles. The data also indicates that the reductive desorption of surface contaminants is possible, minimizing the catalytic loss due to surface poisoning.



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