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© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Carbon-based electrodes combined with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) enable neurochemical sensing with high spatiotemporal resolution and sensitivity. While their attractive electrochemical and conductive properties have established a long history of use in the detection of neurotransmitters both in vitro and in vivo, carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFMEs) also have limitations in their fabrication, flexibility, and chronic stability. Diamond is a form of carbon with a more rigid bonding structure (sp3-hybridized) which can become conductive when boron-doped. Boron-doped diamond (BDD) is characterized by an extremely wide potential window, low background current, and good biocompatibility. Additionally, methods for processing and patterning diamond allow for high-throughput batch fabrication and customization of electrode arrays with unique architectures. While tradeoffs in sensitivity can undermine the advantages of BDD as a neurochemical sensor, there are numerous untapped opportunities to further improve performance, including anodic pretreatment, or optimization of the FSCV waveform, instrumentation, sp2 /sp3 character, doping, surface characteristics, and signal processing. Here, we review the state-of-the-art in diamond electrodes for neurochemical sensing and discuss potential opportunities for future advancements of the technology. We highlight our team’s progress with the development of an all-diamond fiber ultramicroelectrode as a novel approach to advance the performance and applications of diamond-based neurochemical sensors.
Diamond; Electrode; FSCV; Neurotransmitter; Sensing
Neuroscience and Neurobiology
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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Next-Generation Diamond Electrodes for Neurochemical Sensing: Challenges and Opportunities.