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Sulfur/selenium grading is a widely used optimization strategy in kesterite thin-film solar cells to obtain a bandgap-graded absorber material and to optimize optical and electrical properties of the solar-cell device. In this work, we present a novel approach to introduce a [S]/([S] + [Se]) grading for Cu ZnSn(S,Se) solar cells. In contrast to commonly used methods with slow process dynamics, the presented approach aims to create a fast sulfurization reaction on the surface of pure selenide kesterite absorbers by using highly reactive H S gas and high sulfurization temperatures in a rapid flash-type process. With a combination of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray emission spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and Raman-shallow angle cross sections spectroscopy, we gain depth-varied information on the [S]/([S] + [Se]) ratio and discuss the impact of different process parameter variations on the material and device properties. The results demonstrate the potential of the developed process to generate a steep gradient of sulfur that is confined mainly to the surface region of the absorber film. 2 4 2
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Steep Sulfur Gradient in CZTSSe Solar Cells by H2S-Assisted Rapid Surface Sulfurization.
RSC Advances, 11(21),