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Long working hours are recognized as a risk factor for cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases (CCVD). We investigated the relationship between working hours and different CCVD severity outcomes—death, disability, and illness—across industries in Taiwan from 2006 to 2016. We applied a generalized additive mixed model to estimate the association between working hours and the rate of each severity outcome, adjusted for salary, unemployment rate, time, and a random intercept. Industry-average working hours were significantly associated with each outcome level of overwork-related CCVD, especially when monthly working hours increased from 169 (relative risk [RR] = 1.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.002–2.12) to 187 (RR = 5.73, 95% CI 3.61–9.08). Although RR trends declined after monthly working hours exceeded 187, excess risks remained statistically significant. Each 1-hour increase in working hours had a stronger effect on the RR increase in death and disability than on illness. Variations in CCVD risks existed across industries, with the highest risk in transportation and information. Reducing working hours is essential to preventing overwork-related CCVD, especially the more severe outcomes. We recommend further research to address possible underreporting of less severe cases, and to explore actions to narrow the gaps in risk across industries.
Coronary-heart-disease; Long workhours; Compensation; Health; Recognition; Karoshi; Stress; Japan; Criteria; Workers
Community Health and Preventive Medicine | Occupational Health and Industrial Hygiene | Public Health
Nonlinear Associations Between Working Hours and Overwork-Related Cerebrovascular and Cardiovascular Diseases (CCVD).
Scientific Reports, 8