Youth Swimming Ability and Associated Factors in the United States, 2010-17

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American Journal of Health Behavior





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Objective Learning to swim is recommended for children to prevent drowning and to promote lifelong physical activity. Dissimilar US youth swimming ability rates by demographics have been reported. Our research purpose was to examine youth swimming ability by selected variables, and to compare with similar research in 2010. Methods USA Swimming Foundation sponsored a cross-sectional study in 5 US cities during 2017. Trained YMCA personnel administered surveys measuring self-reported swimming ability among youth, ages 4-18 (N = 1373). We compared the 2017 results with findings from the 2010 study (N = 1741). Results In 2017, fewer respondents reported no/low swimming ability. However, groups were identified with a high percentage (greater than 50%) of no/low swimming ability including the following ones; girls, African-American boys and girls, and boys and girls who participate in free or reduced-cost lunch programs. Multivariate analysis showed that significant predictors for lower swimming ability were parent education (less than college education), qualifying for free or reduced-cost lunch programs, and being African-American. Conclusion No/low swimming ability groups were identified and continue to need support. Interventions should target children who are African-American, qualify for free or reduced-cost lunch, and have parents with lower levels of education.We conduct a laboratory experiment to examine whether holding periods for stock compensation affect managers' willingness to take large risks for their firms in order to pursue personal gains. The theoretical lens through which we examine these issues involves the concepts of current-self (the person you are now) and future-self (the person you will be in the future). Results indicate that long holding requirements can decrease manager's feelings of connectedness to their future selves. This change in decision perspective increases managers' willingness to accept risks for their firms when the potential personal rewards of risk taking are high. The findings call into question the current view held by regulators and academics that long holding requirements will consistently reduce adverse consequences of performance-based executive compensation. We find that long holding requirements can actually increase managers' willingness to pursue investments with very low chances of success when large performance incentives are available.


Health disparities; Injury prevention; Physical activity; Swimming; Youth health


Medicine and Health Sciences



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