Biomarkers of Cognitive Impairment: Brain Cortical Thickness, Volumetrics, and Cerebrospinal Fluid
Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
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Brain changes related to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) exist years before manifestation of any cognitive decline.1 Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is impairment in cognition with preserved independence and functional abilities. MCI is considered a risk factor for dementia, however, not all MCI conditions are due to AD pathology. Although ultimate diagnosis of AD is made at autopsy,2 more accurate in vivo diagnosis can be achieved by combining biomarkers in combination with clinical tests and history.3 Understanding how combinations of biomarkers improve diagnosis and assessment of the impact of novel therapeutics is important. Proteins such as τ, Aβ1-42, Pτ181P, which are aggregated as neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques and are also present in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), are considered as AD biomarkers.4 Decreased levels of CSF Aβ42 and increased levels of τ and phosphorylated τ (p-τ) are considered biomarkers indicating underlying AD pathology.5 Moreover, AD is associated with changes in brain structure, including changes to cortical thickness (CT) and cortical and subcortical volumes.6 Specifically, reduced volume of hippocampus is accepted as an AD biomarker.5 Although CSF and imaging biomarkers are frequently analyzed in isolation, the current study uses a well-characterized data set to test the utility of biomarkers both in isolation and in combination, in a large population, and a unique statistical approach. The aims are to (1) differentiate groups including AD, MCI, and healthy participants with normal cognitive status (NCS) and (2) assess relationship of imaging (CT and V) and fluid biomarker (CSF) with cognition.
Alzheimer's disease; Biomarkers; Cortical thickness; CSF; Volumetric
Neuroscience and Neurobiology
Walsh, R. R.,
Banks, S. J.
Biomarkers of Cognitive Impairment: Brain Cortical Thickness, Volumetrics, and Cerebrospinal Fluid.
Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders, 32(3),