Partial Meal Replacement Plan and Quality of the Diet at 1 Year: Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) Trial
Background Little is known about diet quality with a reduced-energy, low-fat, partial meal replacement plan, especially in individuals with type 2 diabetes. The Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) trial implemented a partial meal replacement plan in the Intensive Lifestyle Intervention.Objective To compare dietary intake and percent meeting fat-related and food group dietary recommendations in Intensive Lifestyle Intervention and Diabetes Support and Education groups at 12 months.Design A randomized controlled trial comparing Intensive Lifestyle Intervention with Diabetes Support and Education at 0 and 12 months.Participants/setting From 16 US sites, the first 50% of participants (aged 45 to 76 years, overweight or obese, with type 2 diabetes) were invited to complete dietary assessments. Complete 0-and 12-month dietary assessments (collected between 2001 and 2004) were available for 2,397 participants (46.6% of total participants), with 1,186 randomized to Diabetes Support and Education group and 1,211 randomized to Intensive Lifestyle Intervention group.Main outcome measures A food frequency questionnaire assessed intake: energy; percent energy from protein, fat, carbohydrate, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and saturated fats; trans-fatty acids; cholesterol; fiber; weekly meal replacements; and daily servings from food groups from the Food Guide Pyramid.Statistical analyses performed Mixed-factor analyses of covariance, using Proc MIXED with a repeated statement, with age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and income controlled. Unadjusted chi(2) tests compared percent meeting fat-related and food group recommendations at 12 months.Results At 12 months, Intensive Lifestyle Intervention participants had a significantly lower fat and cholesterol intake and greater fiber intake than Diabetes Support and Education participants. Intensive Lifestyle Intervention participants consumed more servings per day of fruits; vegetables; and milk, yogurt, and cheese; and fewer servings per day of fats, oils, and sweets than Diabetes Support and Education participants. A greater percentage of Intensive Lifestyle Intervention participants than Diabetes Support and Education participants met fat-related and most food group recommendations. Within Intensive Lifestyle Intervention, a greater percentage of participants consuming two or more meal replacements per day than participants consuming less than one meal replacement per day met most fat-related and food group recommendations.Conclusions The partial meal replacement plan consumed by Intensive Lifestyle Intervention participants was related to superior diet quality.
Raynor, H. A.,
Anderson, A. M.,
Miller, G. D.,
Delahanty, L. M.,
Vitolins, M. Z.,
Partial Meal Replacement Plan and Quality of the Diet at 1 Year: Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) Trial.
Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 115(5),