Hypoxia-inducible Transcription Factors, HIF1A and HIF2A, Increase in Aging Mucosal Tissues
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Hypoxia (i.e. oxygen deprivation) activates the hypoxia-signalling pathway, primarily via hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIF) for numerous target genes, which mediate angiogenesis, metabolism and coagulation, among other processes to try to replenish tissues with blood and oxygen. Hypoxia signalling dysregulation also commonly occurs during chronic inflammation. We sampled gingival tissues from rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; 3-25 years old) and total RNA was isolated for microarray analysis. HIF1A, HIF1B and HIF2A were significantly different in healthy aged tissues, and both HIF1A and HIF3A were positively correlated with aging. Beyond these transcription factor alterations, analysis of patterns of gene expression involved in hypoxic changes in tissues showed specific increases in metabolic pathway hypoxia-inducible genes, whereas angiogenesis pathway gene changes were more variable in healthy aging tissues across the animals. With periodontitis, aging tissues showed decreases in metabolic gene expression related to carbohydrate/lipid utilization (GBE1, PGAP1, TPI1), energy metabolism and cell cycle regulation (IER3, CCNG2, PER1), with up-regulation of transcription genes and cellular proliferation genes (FOS, EGR1, MET, JMJD6) that are hypoxia-inducible. The potential clinical implications of these results are related to the epidemiological findings of increased susceptibility and expression of periodontitis with aging. More specifically the findings describe that hypoxic stress may exist in aging gingival tissues before documentation of clinical changes of periodontitis and, so, may provide an explanatory molecular risk factor for an elevated capacity of the tissues to express destructive processes in response to changes in the microbial biofilms characteristic of a more pathogenic microbial challenge.
Aging; Hypoxia; Mucosal tissues; Non‐human primates; Periodontitis
Ebersole, J. L.,
Novak, M. J.,
Chen, K. C.,
Gonzalez, O. A.
Hypoxia-inducible Transcription Factors, HIF1A and HIF2A, Increase in Aging Mucosal Tissues.