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Water contact angles are used to determine hydrophilicity, which is a material's attraction to water. A water contact angle of greater than 90 degrees indicates a hydrophobic material that repels water, whereas a contact angle of less than 90 degrees indicates a hydrophilic material [Fig. 1]. Water contact angles are measured through a goniometer, which can cost between $2000 to $10,000.
Biochar is a porous carbon material created from biological waste products, that is pyrolyzed (i.e. burned) in a low-oxygen, high heat environment. Biochar can be used to remove contaminants from water and remediate soil while reusing waste, making it an excellent environmentally-friendly material. The biochar feedstock type and pyrolysis temperature impacts the resulting biochar's material properties, including hydrophilicity.
Chemistry | Water Resource Management
Letourneau, Emma and Pochampally, Suraj, "Biochar Hydrophilicity Characterization by a Smartphone-Based Apparatus: Design, Construction, and Measurement Calibration" (2022). Undergraduate Research Symposium Posters. 111.
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