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Frontiers in Oncology

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Radiological imaging techniques, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET), are the standard-of-care non-invasive diagnostic approaches widely applied in neuro-oncology. Unfortunately, accurate interpretation of radiological imaging data is constantly challenged by the indistinguishable radiological image features shared by different pathological changes associated with tumor progression and/or various therapeutic interventions. In recent years, machine learning (ML)-based artificial intelligence (AI) technology has been widely applied in medical image processing and bioinformatics due to its advantages in implicit image feature extraction and integrative data analysis. Despite its recent rapid development, ML technology still faces many hurdles for its broader applications in neuro-oncological radiomic analysis, such as lack of large accessible standardized real patient radiomic brain tumor data of all kinds and reliable predictions on tumor response upon various treatments. Therefore, understanding ML-based AI technologies is critically important to help us address the skyrocketing demands of neuro-oncology clinical deployments. Here, we provide an overview on the latest advancements in ML techniques for brain tumor radiomic analysis, emphasizing proprietary and public dataset preparation and state-of-the-art ML models for brain tumor diagnosis, classifications (e.g., primary and secondary tumors), discriminations between treatment effects (pseudoprogression, radiation necrosis) and true progression, survival prediction, inflammation, and identification of brain tumor biomarkers. We also compare the key features of ML models in the realm of neuroradiology with ML models employed in other medical imaging fields and discuss open research challenges and directions for future work in this nascent precision medicine area.


Artificial intelligence; Machine learning; Brain tumor; Immunotherapy; Radiomics; Tumor classification; Survival prediction; Radiogenomics


Artificial Intelligence and Robotics | Other Computer Sciences

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

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