Construct Validity of Scores From the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale in a Sample of Postsecondary Students With Disabilities

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Although theory posits a multidimensional structure of resilience, studies have supported a unidimensional solution for data obtained from the commonly used Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). This study investigated the latent structure of CD-RISC responses in a sample of postsecondary students with disabilities. Furthermore, the validity of CD-RISC scores was examined with respect to career optimism and well-being. The analyses were conducted using confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM). Results supported a bifactor-ESEM representation of the CD-RISC data that accounts for construct-relevant multidimensionality in scores due to the presence of general and specific factors and the fallibility of indicators as pure reflections of the constructs they measure. Although three specific factors showed meaningful residual specificity over and above the general factor, two specific factors were weakly defined with little meaningful residual specificity. However, these factors may retain some utility in the bifactor-ESEM model insofar as they control for limited levels of residual covariance in items. Evidence was also obtained for relations of the general and substantively interpretable specific factors with career optimism and well-being. The results of the study provide validation data for the CD-RISC and clarify recent research converging on seemingly disparate unidimensional and multidimensional solutions

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