HIV Testing Among Pregnant Women With Prenatal Care in the United States: An Analysis of the 2011–2017 National Survey of Family Growth

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International Journal of STD & AIDS





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Although there has been significant progress in reducing perinatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission, the United States is yet to meet the proposed elimination goal of less than one infection per 100,000 live births. Failure to screen all pregnant women for HIV as recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention can result in missed opportunities for preventing vertical transmission of HIV with antiretroviral drugs. Using the 2011–2017 National Survey of Family Growth, this study examined HIV testing among pregnant women during prenatal care. We estimated the weighted proportion of self-reported HIV testing among women whose last pregnancy ended within 12 months prior to the interview. Logistic regression models were used to determine the factors associated with HIV testing. Of the 1566 women included in the study, 76.4% (95% confidence intervals [CI] = 72.8–80.0) reported receiving an HIV test during prenatal care. In the multivariable regression model, high school diploma (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.1–3.1), two completed pregnancies (aOR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.1–2.7), health insurance coverage in the last 12 months (aOR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.0–2.6), Hispanic race/ethnicity (aOR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.8–4.4), and non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity (aOR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.3–3.8) were associated with higher odds of reporting being tested for HIV. However, household income of 300% or more of the federal poverty level (aOR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.3–0.9) and urban residence (aOR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.3–0.9) were associated with lower odds of reporting HIV testing. These findings suggest that HIV testing among pregnant women during prenatal care is not universal and may affect achieving the goal of elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in the United States.


HIV; Prevention of mother-to-child transmission; Prenatal; Screening; United States


Epidemiology | Maternal and Child Health | Virus Diseases



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