Comparison of Vehicle Emissions by EMFAC-HK Model and Tunnel Measurement in Hong Kong
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On-road vehicular emissions were measured in a Hong Kong roadway tunnel and compared to those from a mobile emission model (EMFAC-HK) for the 2003 and 2015 fleets to assess emission changes and effectiveness of emission controls. EMFAC-HK results compared well with tunnel measurement for the 2015 fleet with differences ≤50% for most pollutants. Both measurement and modeled estimates show that non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) and PM decreased by over 40% from 2003 to 2015. Tunnel measurements also show that nitrogen dioxide (NO ) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) -related NMHC emissions increased due to expanded installation of diesel oxidation catalysts and LPG fueling. Motorcycles and LPG-fueled public light buses (3.7% of the fleet) contributed disproportionally high fractions of carbon monoxide (CO; 27%) and NMHC (49%) and deserve additional emission controls. Fuel economy improvements did not result in expected carbon dioxide (CO ) emission reductions, indicating that more aggressive CO reductions, particularly from heavy-duty vehicles, are needed. 2.5 2 2 2
Air pollution; EMFAC-HK; Emission factors; Emission model; Tunnel study; Vehicle emissions
Atmospheric Sciences | Environmental Health
Comparison of Vehicle Emissions by EMFAC-HK Model and Tunnel Measurement in Hong Kong.
Atmospheric Environment, 256