Title

Nonuptake of HIV Testing Among Transgender Populations in the United States: Results from the 2015 U.S. Transgender Survey

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

7-19-2021

Publication Title

Transgender Health

Abstract

Purpose: In this study, we examined the nonuptake of HIV testing and the main reasons for never testing among transgender populations. Methods: Data on 26,927 respondents from the 2015 U.S. Transgender Survey were analyzed in this study. The main reasons for never testing were categorized as low risk perception; access related; fear or HIV-related stigma; and others. We performed weighted descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression analyses, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and sexual orientation. Results: Forty-five percent of the respondents had never tested for HIV. Trans women (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=1.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.07–1.25) and assigned female at birth genderqueer/nonbinary individuals (AFAB GQ/NB) (aOR=1.3, 95% CI=1.16–1.35) had significantly higher odds of reporting never testing for HIV compared with trans men. The most reported reason for never testing was low risk perception (87%). AFAB GQ/NB (aOR=1.4, 95% CI=1.22–1.66) had significantly higher odds of reporting low risk perception as the main reason for never testing for HIV relative to trans men. AFAB GQ/NB were less likely to report access related as the main reason for never testing (aOR=0.8, 95% CI=0.56–0.95). The odds of trans women and assigned male at birth GQ/NB individuals reporting fear or HIV-related stigma as the main reason for never testing were 1.7 (95% CI=1.13–2.55) and 2.8 (95% CI=1.69–4.70) times that of trans men. Both trans women (aOR=0.8, 95% CI=0.65–0.97) and AFAB GQ/NB (aOR=0.7, 95% CI=0.60–0.88) had lower odds of reporting others. The main reasons for never testing also varied by sociodemographic factors, including age, educational attainment, race/ethnicity, employment status, poverty, and sexual orientation. Conclusions: HIV testing is suboptimal among transgender populations. Our findings also suggest that barriers to HIV testing vary by transgender populations, thus interventions for improved uptake should be population specific.

Keywords

Barriers; Gender minority; HIV/AIDS; Screening

Disciplines

Public Health | Virus Diseases

Language

English

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