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Globally, breast cancer is the most common malignancy affecting women. The incidence of breast cancer has been growing among Asian American women. Mammography is a screening procedure that provides early diagnosis for the timely treatment to reduce premature mortality due to breast cancer. However, there are no national data available that summarize the rates of mammography screening among Asian American women. Some small-scale studies have reported low rates of mammography uptake among Asian American women. This cross-sectional study utilized the fourth-generation, multi-theory model (MTM) of health behavior change to explain the correlates of mammography screening among Asian American women between the ages of 45–54 years. A 44-item instrument was evaluated for face, content, and construct validity (using structural equation modeling) and reliability (Cronbach’s alpha) and administered electronically to a nationally representative sample of Asian American women (n = 374). The study found that Asian American women who have had received mammograms in the past 12 months as per recommendations, all three constructs of MTM, namely, participatory dialogue (β = 0.156, p < 0.05), behavioral confidence (β = 0.236, p < 0.001), and changes in the physical environment (β = 0.426, p < 0.001) were statistically significant and crucial in their decision to initiate getting a mammogram, accounting for a substantial 49.9% of the variance in the decision to seek mammography. The study also found that the MTM constructs of emotional transformation (β = 0.437, p < 0.001) and practice for change (β = 0.303, p < 0.001) were significant for maintaining the repeated behavior of getting annual mammograms and were responsible for 53.9% of the variance. This evidence-based study validates the use of MTM in designing and evaluating mammography screening promotion programs among Asian American women aged 45–54 years.
Mammography; Multi-level theory; Screening; Behavior; Asian American
Oncology | Women's Health
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Pharr, J. R.,
Using the Multi-Theory Model (MTM) of Health Behavior Change to Explain the Correlates of Mammography Screening among Asian American Women.