Maternal Urinary OPE Metabolite Concentrations and Blood Pressure During Pregnancy: The HOME Study

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Environmental Research

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Background: Few studies have examined the association between maternal exposure to organophosphate esters (OPEs) and systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) during pregnancy. Methods: We analyzed data from 346 women with a singleton live birth in the HOME Study, a prospective birth cohort in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. We quantified four OPE metabolites in maternal spot urine samples collected at 16 and 26 weeks pregnancy, standardized by specific gravity. We calculated intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). We extracted the first two recorded BP measurements (<20 weeks), the two highest recorded BP measurements (≥20 weeks), and diagnoses of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) via chart review. Women with two BP measurements ≥140/90 mmHg or HDP noted in the chart at ≥20 weeks pregnancy were defined as HDP cases. We used linear mixed models and modified Poisson regression with covariate adjustment to estimate associations between OPE concentrations as continuous variables or in tertiles with maternal BP and HDP. Results: ICCs of OPEs were 0.17–0.45. Diphenyl phosphate (DPHP) had the highest geometric mean concentration among OPE metabolites. Increasing the average bis(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (BCEP) concentrations were positively associated with two highest recorded DBP ≥20 weeks pregnancy. Compared with women in the 1st DPHP tertile, women in the 3rd tertile at 16 weeks pregnancy had 1.72 mmHg (95% CI: -0.01, 3.46) higher DBP <20 weeks pregnancy, and women in the 3rd tertile of the average DPHP concentrations had 2.25 mmHg (95% CI: 0.25, 4.25) higher DBP ≥20 weeks pregnancy. 33 women (9.5%) were identified with HDP. Di-n-butyl phosphate (DNBP) concentrations at 16 weeks were positively associated with HDP, with borderline significance (RR = 2.98, 95% CI 0.97–9.15). Other OPE metabolites were not significantly associated with HDP. Conclusion: Maternal urinary BCEP and DPHP concentrations were associated with increased BP during pregnancy. Maternal urinary DNBP concentrations were associated with HDP, with borderline significance.


Blood pressure; Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy; Maternal exposure; Organophosphate esters


Maternal and Child Health | Toxicology



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