UV inactivation of adenovirus type 4 measured by integrated cell culture qPCR
Recent changes to water quality regulations may increase the prevalence of ultraviolet (UV) disinfection in water treatment applications. Adenoviruses currently pose a tremendous challenge to UV disinfection due to the high dose requirements for inactivation. This study validates a strategy combining cell culture and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for direct quantiﬁcation of infectious adenoviruses in disinfection studies. Using primary liver carcinoma cell monolayers grown in well trays or ﬂasks, post-infection washing, and a 24-hr incubation period, the time and material requirements for the infectivity assays were reduced signiﬁcantly in comparison to traditional assays based on cytopathogenic effects. With this integrated cell culture quantitative PCR (ICC-qPCR) strategy, a standard curve was used to quantify infectious adenoviruses and ultimately determine relative inactivation for a disinfection study. Using ICC-qPCR, UV doses of approximately 10, 34, 69, and 116 mJ/cm2 corresponded to 1, 2, 3, and 4-log inactivation of adenovirus 4 in water, respectively. The results indicate that the new ICC-qPCR strategy represents a practical alternative for the quantiﬁcation of adenoviruses in disinfection studies.
Environmental Engineering | Environmental Health and Protection | Environmental Sciences | Water Resource Management
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Crittenden, J. C.,
UV inactivation of adenovirus type 4 measured by integrated cell culture qPCR.
Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, 43