UV inactivation of adenovirus type 4 measured by integrated cell culture qPCR

Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A



First page number:


Last page number:



Recent changes to water quality regulations may increase the prevalence of ultraviolet (UV) disinfection in water treatment applications. Adenoviruses currently pose a tremendous challenge to UV disinfection due to the high dose requirements for inactivation. This study validates a strategy combining cell culture and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for direct quantification of infectious adenoviruses in disinfection studies. Using primary liver carcinoma cell monolayers grown in well trays or flasks, post-infection washing, and a 24-hr incubation period, the time and material requirements for the infectivity assays were reduced significantly in comparison to traditional assays based on cytopathogenic effects. With this integrated cell culture quantitative PCR (ICC-qPCR) strategy, a standard curve was used to quantify infectious adenoviruses and ultimately determine relative inactivation for a disinfection study. Using ICC-qPCR, UV doses of approximately 10, 34, 69, and 116 mJ/cm2 corresponded to 1, 2, 3, and 4-log inactivation of adenovirus 4 in water, respectively. The results indicate that the new ICC-qPCR strategy represents a practical alternative for the quantification of adenoviruses in disinfection studies.


Adenovirus infectivity; Adenoviruses; Disinfection and disinfectants; ICC-qPCR; UV; Water — Purification — Ultraviolet treatment; Water — Purification — Virus removal


Environmental Engineering | Environmental Health and Protection | Environmental Sciences | Water Resource Management




Use Find in Your Library, contact the author, or use interlibrary loan to garner a copy of the article. Publisher copyright policy allows author to archive post-print (author’s final manuscript). When post-print is available or publisher policy changes, the article will be deposited

UNLV article access

Search your library