Evaluation of Process Control Alternatives for the Inactivation of Escherichia coli, MS2 Bacteriophage, and Bacillus subtilis Spores during Wastewater Ozonation

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Dissolved ozone concentration integrated over time (CT) is a reliable indicator of disinfection efficacy in drinking water treatment. However, ozone CT may not be measurable in some wastewater ozone applications. In this study, alternative process control parameters, specifically ozone to total organic carbon (O3:TOC) ratio, differential UV254 absorbance (ΔUV254), and differential total fluorescence (ΔTF), were correlated with the inactivation of Escherichia coli, the bacteriophage MS2, and Bacillus subtilis spores in five secondary wastewater effluents. CT values greater than 9 mg-min/L were generally required for measurable inactivation of B. subtilis spores, and CT values of 1 and 2 mg-min/L consistently achieved greater than 6- and 5-log inactivation of MS2 and E. coli, respectively. The O3:TOC, ΔUV254, and ΔTF correlations for MS2 and B. subtilis were useful for predicting inactivation, while those of E. coli were characterized by greater variability.


Absorbance; Advanced oxidation; Bacteria; CT; Disinfection; Drinking water; Drinking water—Purification; Escherichia coli; Fluorescence; Land treatment of wastewater; Ozone; Sewage; Sewage —Purification; Spores; Viruses; Wastewater treatment


Civil and Environmental Engineering | Environmental Engineering | Environmental Sciences | Water Resource Management


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