Title

Photodegradation of (E)- and (Z)-Endoxifen in Water by Ultraviolet Light: Efficiency, Kinetics, By-Products, and Toxicity Assessment

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

3-15-2020

Publication Title

Water Research

Volume

171

First page number:

1

Last page number:

10

Abstract

Endoxifen is an effective metabolite of a common chemotherapy agent, tamoxifen. Endoxifen, which is toxic to aquatic animals, has been detected in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent. This research investigates ultraviolet (UV) radiation (253.7 nm) application to degrade (E)- and (Z)-endoxifen in water and wastewater and phototransformation by-products (PBPs) and their toxicity. The effects of light intensity, pH and initial concentrations of (E)- and (Z)-endoxifen on the photodegradation rate were examined. Endoxifen in water was eliminated ≥99.1% after 35 s of irradiation (light dose of 598.5 mJ cm−2). Light intensity and initial concentrations of (E)- and (Z)-endoxifen exhibited positive trends with the photodegradation rates while pH had no effect. Photodegradation of (E)- and (Z)-endoxifen in water resulted in three PBPs. Toxicity assessments through modeling of the identified PBPs suggest higher toxicity than the parent compounds. Photodegradation of (E)- and (Z)-endoxifen in wastewater at light doses used for disinfection in WWTPs (16, 30 and 97 mJ cm−2) resulted in reductions of (E)- and (Z)-endoxifen from 30 to 71%. Two of the three PBPs observed in the experiments with water were detected in the wastewater experiments. Therefore, toxic compounds are potentially generated at WWTPs by UV disinfection if (E)- and (Z)-endoxifen are present in treated wastewater.

Keywords

By-products; Endoxifen; Photodegradation; Toxicity; UV light

Disciplines

Earth Sciences | Hydrology | Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Language

English

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