Biodegradation of Paraquat by Pseudomonas Putida and Bacillus Subtilis Immobilized on Ceramic With Supplemented Wastewater Sludge
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This work aimed to study the performance of paraquat removal by cell-immobilized ceramics. Two strains of paraquat degrading bacteria, Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus subtilis, were separately immobilized on the ceramic with and without wastewater sludge addition. Results showed that the ceramic surface with sludge has more functional groups and a more highly negative charge on the surface than the original ceramic. The ceramic with sludge had 2-3-fold of the immobilized cells higher than that of the control (without sludge) and less leaching of the immobilized cells. The sludge addition at 20% (w/w) to the ceramic provided the highest cell adhesion for both P. putida and B. subtilis. The paraquat removal efficiencies were higher than 98%, while the control ceramic could remove only 77 ± 1.2%. The immobilized cells on ceramic with sludge provided a significant degree of dissolved organic nitrogen reduction (82%) during the paraquat removal. Most organic nitrogen in paraquat was biologically mineralized (ammonified). Findings from this work suggest the superiority of ceramic with sludge in mineralizing organic nitrogen associated with paraquat.
Biodegradation; Cell-immobilization; Paraquat; Sludge; Wastewater
Biodegradation of Paraquat by Pseudomonas Putida and Bacillus Subtilis Immobilized on Ceramic With Supplemented Wastewater Sludge.
Environmental Pollution, 286