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Solid Earth Sciences

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The Yangzhuang iron deposit is a Kiruna-type iron oxide-apatite (IOA) deposit within the Ningwu mining district of the Middle and Lower Yangtze River Metallogenic Belt (MLYRMB), China. This study applies a numerical modeling approach to identify the key processes associated with the formation of the deposit that cannot be easily identified using traditional analytical approaches, including the duration of the mineralizing process and the genesis of iron orebodies within intrusions associated with the deposit. This approach highlights the practical value of numerical modeling in quantitatively analyzing mineralizing processes during the formation of mineral deposits and assesses how these methods can be used in future geological research. Our numerical model links heat transfer, pressure, fluid flow, chemical reactions, and the movement of ore-forming material. Results show that temperature anomaly and structure (occurrence of the contact of intrusion and the Triassic Xujiashan group) are two key factors controlling the formation of the Yangzhuang deposit. This modeling also indicates that the formation of the Yangzhuang deposit only took some 8000 years, a reaction that is likely to be controlled by temperature and diffusion rates within the system. The dynamic changes of temperature and the distribution of mineralization also indicate that the orebodies located inside the intrusions most likely formed after magma ascent rather than representing blocks of existing mineralization that descended into the magma as a result of stoping or other similar processes. All these data form the basis for future research into the forming processes of Kiruna-type IOA systems as well as magmatic–hydrothermal systems more broadly, including providing useful insights for future exploration for these systems. The simulation approach used in this study has several limitations, such as oversimplified chemical reactions, uncertainty of pre-metallogenic conditions and limitation of 2D model. Future development into both theories and methods will definitely improve the practical significance of numerical simulation of ore-forming processes and provide quantitative results for more geological issues.


Duration of ore formation; Metallogenesis; Middle and Lower Yangtze River Metallogenic Belt; Numerical modeling; Yangzhuang Kiruna-type deposit


Geology | Mineral Physics

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Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

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