Gambling behavior; gambling tendencies; athletes; former athletes; nonathletes; South Oaks Gambling Screen; SOGS


Gaming and Casino Operations Management | Gaming Law

Document Type

Original Research Article


Gambling behaviors in current athletes, former athletes and non-athletes were examined. Gambling tendencies were determined from participants' responses on the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). A delayed competitive effect among athletes that might surface in the form of pathological gambling was investigated. To test this novel theory, participants were divided into three groups: athletes who are currently playing sports, former athletes who used to play competitive sports and non-athletes who have never participated in competitive sporting events. A 2 x 3 independent groups AN OVA was utilized comparing SOGS scores across gender and athletic status. The mean score for former athletes on the SOGS was significantly higher than for both current athletes and non-athletes as was the frequency of those classified as "probable pathological" gamblers suggesting the possibility that a delayed competitive effect might exist among former athletes. Additionally, a higher percentage of former athletes were involved in sports gambling.