Illegal online gambling; offshore gambling; online casino reviews; framing theory; neutralization technique


Criminology | Gaming Law | Quantitative, Qualitative, Comparative, and Historical Methodologies | Theory, Knowledge and Science

Document Type

Original Research Article


Although there are many illegal online gamblers in the United States who use offshore gambling sites while falsely believing that their activity is legitimate, few studies have focused on the role of online casino reviews (OCR) who facilitate this activity. These reviews, for a variety of reasons, may present misleading information designed to encourage U.S. players to use offshore gambling sites. Using framing theory and neutralization techniques, we conducted a content analysis of multiple OCR to examine how they present information and justifications regarding the use of offshore gambling sites in the U.S. The findings indicate that many OCR positively promoted offshore sites, presenting various frames in which legal issues and information were interpreted in ways that neutralize and encourage the use of offshore sites in the U.S. This study suggests multiple preventive measures to facilitate effective online gambling regulation.

Funding Sources

There has been no financial support for this work.

Competing Interests

I have no conflicts of interests to disclose.