Journal of Nuclear Materials
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The corrosion of steel by lead–bismuth eutectic (LBE) is an important issue in proposed nuclear transmutation schemes. Russian scientists at the IPPE exposed steel samples to oxygen-controlled LBE at temperatures up to 823 K and exposure times up to 3000 h. We have characterized these post-exposure steel samples and unexposed controls, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Previous researchers have investigated the corrosion by LBE of steel of varying composition. In the present work, we compared two samples having the same composition (standard nuclear grade 316/316L) but different surface preparation: a cold-rolled sample was compared with an annealed sample. The cold-rolled sample had an order of magnitude less corrosion (i.e., both lower oxidation and less weight change) than the annealed sample. Sputter depth profiling of the exposed annealed sample and cold-rolled sample showed a marked difference in oxide layer composition between the annealed and cold-rolled samples. The annealed sample showed a complex oxide structure (iron oxide over chromium/iron oxide mixtures) of tens of microns thickness, while the cold-rolled sample was covered with a rather simple, primarily chromium oxide layer of ∼1 μm thickness.
Eutectic alloys; Lead-bismuth alloys; Stainless steel; Steel — Corrosion
Biological and Chemical Physics | Chemistry | Materials Science and Engineering | Metallurgy | Oil, Gas, and Energy
Allen L Johnson, Denise Parsons, Julia Manzerova, Dale L Perry, Dan Koury, Brian Hosterman, John W Farley, Spectroscopic and microscopic investigation of the corrosion of 316/316L stainless steel by lead–bismuth eutectic (LBE) at elevated temperatures: importance of surface preparation, Journal of Nuclear Materials, Volume 328, Issues 2–3, 1 July 2004, Pages 88-96, ISSN 0022-3115, 10.1016/j.jnucmat.2004.03.006.
Johnson, A. L.,
Perry, D. L.,
Hosterman, B. D.,
Spectroscopic and Microscopic Investigation of the Corrosion of 316/316L Stainless Steel by Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) at Elevated Temperatures: Importance of Surface Preparation.
Journal of Nuclear Materials, 328(2-3),
Available at: https://digitalscholarship.unlv.edu/hrc_trp_sciences_materials/160