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The microbiome of the human gut and liver coexists by influencing the health and disease state of each system. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has recently emerged as a potential treatment for conditions associated with cirrhosis, such as hepatic encephalopathy and recurrent/refractory Clostridioides difficile infection (rCDI). We have conducted a systematic review of the safety and efficacy of FMT in treating hepatic encephalopathy and rCDI. A literature search was performed using variations of the keywords “fecal microbiota transplant” and “cirrhosis” on PubMed/MEDLINE from inception to October 3, 2021. The resulting 116 articles were independently reviewed by two authors. Eight qualifying studies were included in the systematic review. A total of 127 cirrhotic patients received FMT. Hepatic encephalopathy was evaluated by cognitive tests, such as the Psychometric Hepatic Encephalopathy Score (PHES) and EncephalApp Stroop test. Not only was there an improvement in the cognitive performance in the FMT cohort, but the improvement was also maintained throughout long-term follow-up. In the treatment of rCDI, the FMT success rate is similar between cirrhotic patients and the general population, although more than one dose may be needed in the former. The rate of serious adverse events and adverse events in the cirrhotic cohort was slightly higher than that in the general population but was low overall. We found evidence that supports the therapeutic potential and safety profile of FMT to treat hepatic encephalopathy and rCDI in cirrhotic patients. Further research will be beneficial to better understand the role of FMT in cirrhosis.
Adverse outcomes; Hepatic encephalopathy; Clostridioides difficile infection; Fecal microbiota transplantation; Cirrhosis
Diseases | Hepatology | Medicine and Health Sciences
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Hong, A. S.,
A Systematic Review of the Efficacy and Safety of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in the Treatment of Hepatic Encephalopathy and Clostridioides difficile Infection in Patients With Cirrhosis.
Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.25537