Cycling Efficiency and Energy Cost of Walking in Young and Older Adults
Journal of Applied Psychology
To determine whether age affects cycling efficiency and the energy cost of walking (Cw), 190 healthy adults, ages 18–81 yr, cycled on an ergometer at 50 W and walked on a treadmill at 1.34 m/s. Ventilation and gas exchange at rest and during exercise were used to calculate net Cw and net efficiency of cycling. Compared with the 18–40 yr age group (2.17 ± 0.33 J·kg−1·m−1), net Cw was not different in the 60–64 yr (2.20 ± 0.40 J·kg−1·m−1) and 65–69 yr (2.20 ± 0.28 J·kg−1·m−1) age groups, but was significantly (P < 0.03) higher in the ≥70 yr (2.37 ± 0.33 J·kg−1·m−1) age group. For subjects >60 yr, net Cw was significantly correlated with age (R2 = 0.123; P = 0.002). Cycling net efficiency was not different between 18–40 yr (23.5 ± 2.9%), 60–64 yr (24.5 ± 3.6%), 65–69 yr (23.3 ± 3.6%) and ≥70 yr (24.7 ± 2.7%) age groups. Repeat tests on a subset of subjects (walking, n = 43; cycling, n = 37) demonstrated high test-retest reliability [intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), 0.74–0.86] for all energy outcome measures except cycling net energy expenditure (ICC = 0.54) and net efficiency (ICC = 0.50). Coefficients of variation for all variables ranged from 3.1 to 7.7%. Considerable individual variation in Cw and efficiency was evident, with a ~2-fold difference between the least and most economical/efficient subjects. We conclude that, between 18 and 81 yr, net Cw was only higher for ages ≥70 yr, and that cycling net efficiency was not different across age groups.
Gross efficiency, Net efficiency, Muscular efficiency, Metabolic cost of walking, Aging
Gaesser, G. A.,
Tucker, W. J.,
Sawyer, B. J.,
Bhammar, D. M.,
Angadi, S. S.
Cycling Efficiency and Energy Cost of Walking in Young and Older Adults.
Journal of Applied Psychology, 124(2),