Background: Diet has been associated with poor glycemic control in diabetes. Few studies have examined this association in people with type 1 diabetes (T1D), who are at a higher risk for cardiovascular disease than people without diabetes. Methods: We report data from cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses from a coronary artery calcification in type 1 diabetes (CACTI) study (n = 1257; T1D: n = 568; non-diabetic controls: n = 689) collected between the years 2000 and 2002. Participants completed a validated food frequency questionnaire, a physical examination, and biochemical analyses. Dietary patterns based on variations in food group intake were created with principal components analysis. Linear regression was used to examine the associations of dietary patterns, macronutrients, and food groups with HbA1c in a model adjusted for relevant covariates and stratified by diabetes status. Results: Three dietary patterns were identified: “fruits, veggies, meats, cereal”, “baked desserts” and “convenience foods and alcohol” patterns. At baseline, a higher intake of the “baked dessert” pattern was significantly associated with higher HbA1c in T1D at baseline as well at year 6 of the study when adjusted for age, sex, BMI, total calories, and diabetes duration. No such associations were observed in the case of non-diabetic controls. Dietary saturated fats and animal fats were also positively associated with HbA1c in adults with T1D at baseline and/or at year 6. Conclusions: The habitual intake of a dietary pattern that is characterized by an increased intake of added sugar and saturated fats, such as in baked desserts, may increase risks of poor glycemic control in T1D.
Baked desserts; Dietary patterns; Glycated hemoglobin; Type 1 diabetes
Human and Clinical Nutrition
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Associations of Dietary Patterns and Nutrients With Glycated Hemoglobin in Participants With and Without Type 1 Diabetes.