Associations of Dietary Patterns and Nutrients With Coronary Artery Calcification and Pericardial Adiposity in a Longitudinal Study of Adults With and Without Type 1 Diabetes

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European Journal of Nutrition

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Purpose: To examine the associations of dietary patterns and nutrients with coronary artery calcification (CAC) and pericardial adiposity (PAT) in adults with and without type 1 diabetes. Methods: We conducted a six-year longitudinal analysis of data from Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes study [n = 1255; T1D: n = 563; non-DM: n = 692] collected at baseline, year 3 and year 6. Participants completed a validated food frequency questionnaire, a physical examination, and fasting (12 h overnight fast) biochemical analyses. CAC and PAT were measured using electron beam computed tomography. Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine associations of dietary patterns and nutrients with CAC and PAT in models adjusted for traditional cardiovascular risks. Results: The ‘starchy veggies, meats and alcohol pattern’ was associated with significantly increased risk of CAC presence in all adjusted models; an increasing trend was observed with CAC progression. Increasing intake of dietary proteins and total fats were also associated with higher risk of the presence and/or progression of CAC in adjusted models (all p < 0.05). PAT was positively associated with dietary total fats, and inversely associated with dietary intakes of saturated fats, omega-3 fats and fiber in models adjusted for age, sex, total calories, time, diabetes status, systolic blood pressure, serum lipids and physical activity. Conclusion: Diets high in total fats and proteins, and in meats (processed and red) and alcohol may increase risks of CAC, while saturated fats, omega-3-fats and fiber may be protective against pericardial adiposity as a risk factor for coronary artery disease. Identifier: NCT00005754.


Alcohol; Coronary artery calcium; Dietary fats; Fiber; Pericardial adiposity; Processed meats; Proteins


Human and Clinical Nutrition



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