Beyond Banning the Box: A Conceptual Model of the Stigmatization of Ex-Offenders in the Workplace
Human Resource Management Review
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Ex-offenders comprise a significant percentage of the labor force but frequently face stigmatization at work. Previous research on the ex-offender stigma has focused almost exclusively on its deleterious implications during the selection process. We seek to provide insight by adopting a cross-disciplinary approach and drawing from theoretical foundations in social psychology to present a model of the process and outcomes of the stigmatization of ex-offenders in organizations. In doing so, we outline the relationships between stigmatization, labeling, stereotyping, and treatment discrimination in the employee-observer relationship, to suggest how stigma leads to employee outcomes such as reduced performance and satisfaction as well as higher turnover. Further, we offer critical boundary conditions along each step of the process and discuss strategies that ex-offenders can use to manage their stigma as well as organizational practices that may help employers and managers avoid negative outcomes for ex-offender employees.
Stigma; Employing ex-offenders; Ban the box; Stereotyping; Discrimination
Business Administration, Management, and Operations | Entrepreneurial and Small Business Operations | Organizational Behavior and Theory
Baur, J. E.,
Hall, A. V.,
Daniels, S. R.,
Buckley, R. M.,
Anderson, J. H.
Beyond Banning the Box: A Conceptual Model of the Stigmatization of Ex-Offenders in the Workplace.
Human Resource Management Review, 28(2),