Document Type


Publication Date

Spring 2006

Publication Title

The DATA BASE for Advances in Information Systems


Association for Computing Machinery




2 & 3

First page number:


Last page number:



We propose extending our understanding of self-efficacy by comparing self-efficacy with a related construct called metacognition. Metacognition involves the monitoring and control of one's thought processes and is often related, as is self-efficacy, to performance on a task. We develop an instrument that attempts to measure both self-efficacy and metacognition with respect to one's performance on a test covering declarative and procedural knowledge (knowing that, and knowing how) of DFDs and ERDs. With data collected from a sample of 124 students, we use partial least squares (PLS) to show that self-efficacy and metacognition are distinct yet related constructs. While self-efficacy is a predictor of both declarative and procedural knowledge, metacognition is only related to procedural knowledge. We discuss the implications of these results and suggest further research is needed to compare and contrast the role of these constructs in assessing learning outcomes.


Computer and information science education; Computer science – Study and teaching; Data flow diagrams; Declarative knowledge; Entity-relationship diagrams; Learning; Logical design; Metacognition; Performance; Procedural knowledge; Self-efficacy


Business | Community-Based Research | Computer Sciences | Education | Systems and Communications


© ACM, 2006. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of ACM for your personal use. Not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in The DATA BASE for Advances in Information Systems, {37, 2 & 3, (2006)}

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