Sex differences in leukocyte invasion in injured murine skeletal muscle

Document Type



The three aims of this study were to describe the time course of leukocyte invasion in injured soleus muscles of male and female mice, to determine if differential subsets of leukocytes accumulate in intramyofiber and interstitial sites, and to determine if significant sex differences exist in invading leukocyte concentrations. Fifty sexually mature C57BL/6J mice (aged 11-12 weeks) underwent unilateral hindlimb muscle injury induced by lengthening contractions. This procedure models the muscle injury that can occur through strenuous exercise or overuse in humans. After 1, 3, 5, or 7 days of recovery, the injured and contralateral, uninjured solei were dissected and prepared for morphologic analysis. We found that leukocytes had invaded injured myofibers at 1-day postinjury for both sexes. Different subsets of leukocytes accumulated within damaged myofibers and the interstitium. Significantly fewer myofibers were invaded by acid phosphatase-positive leukocytes in females. Interstitial ER-BMDM1 leukocyte concentrations peaked in females at 7 days postinjury in comparison to 5 days postinjury in males. These findings expand nursing's knowledge base regarding the potential effect of gender on recovery from acute muscle injury.


Animals; Cell Movement; Electric Stimulation/methods; Female; Healing; Hindlimb; Immunohistochemistry; Leucocytes; Leukocytes/cytology; Leukocytes/enzymology; Male; Mice; Mice – Wounds and injuries; Mice; Inbred C57BL; Muscle Fibers; Skeletal/cytology; Muscle Fibers; Skeletal/enzymology; Muscle; Skeletal/cytology; Muscle; Skeletal/enzymology; Muscle; Skeletal/injuries; Muscles – Wounds and injuries; Sex Characteristics; Tibial Nerve/physiology; Time Factors


Medicine and Health Sciences | Nursing

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