Inner Strength-State of the Science

Charles S. Smith, Rappahannock Community College
Catherine Dingley, University of Neve
Gayle Roux, University of North Dakota


The phenomenon of inner strength has been investigated since 1990. Foundations for inner strength have been developed using inductive designs that have led to a middle-range theory of inner strength and a conceptual model. Two instruments have been developed to measure and test inner strength and have been predominantly used in samples of women and the elderly. This paper will trace the development of inner strength knowledge from two distinct paradigms in North America and Northern Europe. Empirical testing is described. Gaps in the current state of knowledge of inner strength are identified as well as implications for future research.