Gamma-Ray Burst/Supernova Associations: Energy Partition and the Case of a Magnetar Central Engine
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The favored progenitor model for Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs) with Supernova (SN) association is the core collapse of massive stars. One possible outcome of such a collapse is a rapidly spinning, strongly magnetized neutron star ("magnetar"). We systematically analyze the multi-wavelength data of GRB/SN associations detected by several instruments before 2017 June. Twenty GRB/SN systems have been confirmed via direct spectroscopic evidence or a clear light curve bump, as well as some spectroscopic evidence resembling a GRB-SN. We derive/collect the basic physical parameters of the GRBs and the SNe, and look for correlations among these parameters. We find that the peak brightness, 56Ni mass, and explosion energy of SNe associated with GRBs are statistically higher than other Type Ib/c SNe. A statistically significant relation between the peak energy of GRBs and the peak brightness of their associated SNe is confirmed. No significant correlations are found between the GRB energies (either isotropic or beaming-corrected) and the supernova energy. We investigate the energy partition within these systems and find that the beaming-corrected GRB energy of most systems is smaller than the SN energy, with less than 30% of the total energy distributed in the relativistic jet. The total energy of the systems is typically smaller than the maximum available energy of a millisecond magnetar (2 × 1052 erg), especially if aspherical SN explosions are considered. The data are consistent with—although not proof of—the hypothesis that most, but not all, GRB/SN systems are powered by millisecond magnetars.
Gamma rays: General; Methods: Statistical; Radiation mechanisms: Non-thermal
Astrophysics and Astronomy
Kann, D. A.,
Gamma-Ray Burst/Supernova Associations: Energy Partition and the Case of a Magnetar Central Engine.
Astrophysical Journal, 862(2),