Although the formation and the properties of hot Jupiters (with orbital periods P < 10 days) have attracted a great deal of attention, the origins of warm Jupiters (10 < P < 100 days) are less well studied. Using a transit timing analysis, we present the orbital parameters of five planetary systems containing warm Jupiters, Kepler 30, Kepler 117, Kepler 302, Kepler 487, and Kepler 418. Three of them, Kepler-30 c(M p = 549.4 ± 5.6 M ⊕), Kepler-117 c(M p = 702 ± 63 M ⊕), and Kepler 302 c(M p = 933 ± 527 M ⊕), are confirmed to be real warm Jupiters based on their mass. Insights drawn from the radius–temperature relationship lead to the inference that hot Jupiters and warm Jupiters can be roughly separated by T eff,c = 1123.7 ± 3.3 K. Also, T eff,c provides a good separation for Jupiters with companion fraction consistent with zero (T eff > T eff,c) and those with companion fraction significantly different from zero (T eff < T eff,c).
Planets and satellites: detection; Planets and satellites: dynamical evolution and stability
Astrophysics and Astronomy
Steffen, J. H.,
TTV-determined Masses for Warm Jupiters and Their Close Planetary Companions.
Astronomical Journal, 156(3),