The Astrophysical Journal
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The high occurrence rates of spiral arms and large central clearings in protoplanetary disks, if interpreted as signposts of giant planets, indicate that gas giants commonly form as companions to young stars (Myr) at orbital separations of 10–300 au. However, attempts to directly image this giant planet population as companions to more mature stars (>10 Myr) have yielded few successes. This discrepancy could be explained if most giant planets form by "cold start," i.e., by radiating away much of their formation energy as they assemble their mass, rendering them faint enough to elude detection at later times. In that case, giant planets should be bright at early times, during their accretion phase, and yet forming planets are detected only rarely through direct imaging techniques. Here we explore the possibility that the low detection rate of accreting planets is the result of episodic accretion through a circumplanetary disk. We also explore the possibility that the companion orbiting the Herbig Ae star HD 142527 may be a giant planet undergoing such an accretion outburst.
Herbig Ae/Be stars; Circumstellar disks; Planet formation; Protoplanetary disks; Exoplanet detection methods; Exoplanet astronomy
External Galaxies | Instrumentation | Stars, Interstellar Medium and the Galaxy
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Brittain, S. D.,
Najita, J. R.,
The Planetary Luminosity Problem: " Missing Planets" and the Observational Consequences of Episodi Accretion.
The Astrophysical Journal, 895(48),