Document Type



Judicial performance evaluations (JPEs) are a critical part of selecting judges, especially in states using merit-based selection systems. This article shows empirical evidence that gender and race bias still exist in attorney surveys conducted in accordance with the ABA’s Guidelines. This systematic bias is related to a more general problem with the design and implementation of JPE surveys, which results in predictable problems with the reliability and validity of the information obtained through these survey instruments. This analysis raises questions about the validity and reliability of the JPE. This is a particularly poor outcome, as it means that we are subjecting many judges to state-sponsored evaluations that are systematically biased against women and minorities.


Discrimination; Discrimination in employment; Gender bias; Implicit bias; Judges – Rating of; Judges – Selection and appointment; Judicial performance evaluation; Judicial quality; Judicial selection; Minority judges; Race bias; Race discrimination; Racism; Sexism; Women judges


Gender and Sexuality | Judges | Law | Political Science | Race and Ethnicity

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