Exploring Active and Passive Contributors to Turnout in Dancers and Non-Dancers.
Journal of Medical Problems in Performing Artists
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Lower-extremity external rotation, or turnout, is a fundamental skill in dance. Active standing turnout has previously been measured using low-friction turnout disks. Turnout is influenced by passive range of motion (ROM) and strength, with passive ROM a function of bony morphology and ligamentous/capsular restraints.
Smith, J. A.,
Exploring Active and Passive Contributors to Turnout in Dancers and Non-Dancers..
Journal of Medical Problems in Performing Artists, 30(2),