Hemodynamic Response to Isometric Handgrip Exercise in Adults with Intellectual Disability

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Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise





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Introduction Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and reduced work capacity, which could partly be explained by alterations to autonomic and hemodynamic regulation. The measurement of heart rate and blood pressure during isometric handgrip (HG) exercise, a sympathoexcitatory stimulus, is a noninvasive method to investigate autonomic and hemodynamic alterations. The purpose of this study was to assess alterations to autonomic and associated hemodynamic regulation between individuals with ID and a matched control group during isometric HG exercise. Methods Individuals with ID (n = 13; 31 +/- 2 yr, 27.6 +/- 7.7 kg center dot m(-2)) and without ID (n = 16; 29 +/- 7 yr, 24.2 +/- 2.8 kg center dot m(-2)) performed 2 min of isometric HG exercise at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) in the seated position. Blood pressure was averaged for 2 min before, during, and after HG exercise (mean arterial pressure [MAP], systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure). Heart rate variability, blood pressure variability, and baroreflex sensitivity were calculated from the continuous blood pressure and heart rate recordings. Results Isometric HG elicited a blunted response in systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and MAP among individuals with ID compared with individuals without ID, even after controlling for strength (MAP: rest, HG, recovery; ID: 103 +/- 7, 108 +/- 9, 103 +/- 7; without ID: 102 +/- 7, 116 +/- 10, 104 +/- 10 mm Hg; interaction P < 0.05). Individuals with ID also had an attenuated baroreflex sensitivity response to HG exercise compared with individuals without ID (interaction P = 0.041), but these effects were no longer significant after controlling for maximal voluntary contraction. Indices of heart rate variability and blood pressure variability were not different between groups overall or in response to HG exercise (P > 0.05). Conclusions Individuals with ID have a blunted hemodynamic and autonomic response to isometric HG exercise compared with individuals without ID.


Blood pressure; Baroreflex; Cardiac autonomic function; Isometric hg exercise


Medicine and Health Sciences | Sports Sciences



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