Document Type

Technical Report

Publication Date



National Renewable Energy Laboratory

First page number:

i-vii, 1

Last page number:



Voluntary markets for renewable energy in which consumers purchase renewable energy from their electricity providers or from renewable energy certificate (REC) marketers have existed for more than a decade. Going forward, various factors will influence the development of these markets, including potential climate policies, state and federal renewable portfolio standards (RPS), renewable energy prices, the level of consumer interest in purchasing green power, and the interest on the part of utilities in offering new green options and in continuing to promote existing programs.

This report presents estimates of voluntary market demand for renewable energy or green power through 2015. The forecast relies on historical data, including market sector sizes and growth rates, to inform our assumptions. Though we adjusted growth rates as discussed in the report, they remain the starting point for our analysis. Because of the different factors that affect utility programs, REC markets, and competitive electric markets, separate assumptions and methods are used to project demand for each submarket.


Clean energy industries; Consumption (Economics); Consumption (Economics) – Forecasting; Energy industries; Market demand; Market forecast; On-site solar power; Power resources—Costs; Renewable energy markets; Renewable energy sources – Supply and demand; Voluntary green power markets


Economics | Marketing | Oil, Gas, and Energy