Gender differences in presenting symptoms, treatment, and outcome in myocardial infarction
The purposes of this study were to compare the presenting symptoms, treatment, and outcome between men and women with MI. The study sample consisted of 300 patients (N = 300) who were diagnosed with MI in a county hospital in the Southwest area of the United States; Chest pain, shortness of breath, sweating, and left arm pain were the most common symptoms reported by both genders. Men had more chest pain than their women counterparts (p = .022). No significant difference was found in the cardiac enzyme levels between both genders. Men had more Q wave changes during MI than women (p = .019). Women suffer MI two and a half years later than men (p = .004). Oxygen, nitrates, morphine sulfate, and heparin were the most common treatments given to men and women. Men received more morphine sulfate (p = .013) and betablockers (p = .011) than women in the emergency department. No significant difference was found in the coronary diagnostic and therapeutic procedures or outcome between both genders.