Award Date


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Public Health (MPH)


Public Health

First Committee Member

Shawn L. Gerstenberger

Number of Pages



Currently, it is expensive and time consuming for public health entities to test candy (and other consumer products) that has entered the consumer market in the United States. The XRF, on the other hand, provides a quick, economical, and easy method to test lead levels. It has been demonstrated in a variety of studies that x-ray fluorescence (XRF) can be used for testing lead levels in paint, soil, and testing in-vivo for bone. What has not been studied is the XRF's ability to test for lead in certain consumer items such as candy. This research was designed to identify XRF candy testing techniques that provide a quick and accurate testing method for testing candy wrappers. If public health entities had access to XRF technology they could quickly determine if specific candies contain lead. To date, there has not been a protocol developed using the XRF instrument to test candy wrappers for lead. This study identifies which newly developed XRF procedures are the most effective for testing candy wrappers for lead.


Candy; Detection; Evaluation; Fluorescence; Lead; Methods; Ray; Wrappers

Controlled Subject

Public health

File Format


File Size

1433.6 KB

Degree Grantor

University of Nevada, Las Vegas




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