Award Date


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Nursing (MSN)



First Committee Member

Rosemary Witt

Number of Pages



This study employed three questionnaires to determine if depression, anxiety and mood levels in women recently diagnosed with breast cancer differed when the breast lump was discovered via breast self-exam versus discovery by physician examination, mammogram or accidental discovery by self or spouse. Depression was measured by the Beck Depression Inventory, anxiety was measured by the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Scale and mood was measured by the General Health Questionnaire. The Neuman Systems Model was the conceptual framework for this study. Sixty-two women between the ages of 26-80 years completed the three questionnaires while awaiting the physician during an office visit. All women completed the questionnaires within 12 weeks of diagnosis. Data was analyzed utilizing Analysis of Variance and Analysis of Covariance. Significant differences in depression, mood and anxiety were not found to exist between women who discovered the lump through BSE and women diagnosed as a result of physician examination, mammogram or accidental discovery. Depression and anxiety scores were statistically significant when groups were separated into BSE practice versus no BSE practice regardless of the method of discovery. Women who practiced BSE were less depressed and less anxious overall than women who did not practice BSE.


Anxiety; Breast; Cancer; Depression; Diagnosed; Effects; Women

Controlled Subject

Nursing; Obstetrics; Clinical psychology

File Format


File Size

2539.52 KB

Degree Grantor

University of Nevada, Las Vegas




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