Award Date


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


Special Education

First Committee Member

John Filler

Number of Pages



The purpose of this study was to determine if pre-school children, with and without disabilities, could identify symbols more accurately while looking at the symbols through colored overlays; The LEA Playing Cards and the LEA Near Vision Test were used to assess the ability to point to a symbol. To screen for the preferred color overlay the Cerium Colour Overlays were used; Eighteen children, aged 3 to 5 years participated. Nine were children with disabilities, nine were children without disabilities; A screening determined if each child could match four common symbols by pointing. Three groups were formed. Each group included three children with disabilities and three children without disabilities; A Pretest involved having each child point to four symbols on the LEA Near Vision Test first with the Test card was covered with a clear overlay, second with the preferred color overlay and, finally, with a randomly chosen non preferred color overlay. The Intervention procedure was the same as the Pretest procedure with the exception that each group used a different type of overlay. Group I used a clear overlay, Group II used the preferred color overlay, and Group III used the randomly chosen, non-preferred color overlay; The analyses included a one-way ANOVA with repeated measures between the Pretest scores and the Intervention scores, a one-way ANOVA comparing the Intervention scores between those with and without disabilities, a one-way ANOVA comparing the Intervention scores between the three groups, a two-way ANOVA comparing the interaction between the Intervention scores of the group factor and the disability factor, and a two-way ANOVA comparing the preferred color choices between the disability and overlay conditions; The results showed no statistically significant differences between the Pretest and Intervention accuracy scores. The results of the one-way ANOVA with repeated measures between the Pretest scores and Intervention scores did approach statistical significance of p = .089. Interaction between the group and disability factors were not statistically significant. There was a trend in which the children with disabilities achieved higher Intervention mean scores when using colored overlays. No single color dominated preference.


Children; Colored; Colored Overlays; Disabilities; Identification; Overlays; Preschool Children; Symbol Identification

Controlled Subject

Special education; Early childhood education

File Format


File Size

2304 KB

Degree Grantor

University of Nevada, Las Vegas




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