Award Date


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


Special Education

Number of Pages



The Wink Fullview Mirror (WFM) is a commercially available automotive mirror designed primarily for use with non-handicapped populations. Manufactured by the Wink Corporation, 29630 56th Avenue West, Lynwood, Washington, it is designed to replace the standard equipment rearview mirror in automobiles in order to provide an expanded field of vision. Efficacy of the mirror with subjects having selected cervical spinal dysfunctions was investigated. A review of the literature suggested that there were no previous works which studied the effectiveness of any similar devices. Using a stratified random sampling procedure, the study involved a total sample of 32 individuals divided into two groups. Each group contained equal numbers of subjects having surgical and non-surgical dysfunctions. Randomization considered appropriate demographic variables. Three measurement instruments, the McGill Pain Questionnaire, the Daily Discomfort Chart, and the Experimental Group Follow-Up Survey were used to objectify changes in the pain perceptions of subjects during periods of motor vehicle operation. Three research hypotheses were delineated. These hypotheses postulated that use of the WFM would (1) decrease cervically specific discomfort during periods of motor vehicle operation, (2) decrease secondary related physiologic discomfort during periods of motor vehicle operation, and (3) increase the subjects' self-confidence during periods of motor vehicle operation. Data used to test each hypothesis were analyzed using a three factor analysis of variance with repeated measures. Hypothesis One was not conclusively supported on all three factors, and therefore was not accepted at the .05 level. Hypothesis Two and Hypothesis Three were accepted at the .05 level. Intergroup comparisons suggested that the experimental group reported positive changes as a result of using the Wink Fullview Mirror. Long term follow-up suggested that a majority of respondents reported they were continuing to use the mirror and that it had reduced their physiologic pain and fatigue. A majority also reported an increase in their self-confidence during periods of motor vehicle operation as a result of using the WFM. The researcher concluded that the Wink Fullview Mirror was found to be effective in increasing an individual's physiologic comfort and perceptions of self-confidence during periods of motor vehicle operation.


Application; Cervical; Dysfunctions; Effectiveness; Environmental; Expanded; Field; Having; Optics; Reflective; Spinal; Subjects; Utilized

Controlled Subject

Physical therapy

File Format


File Size

2570.24 KB

Degree Grantor

University of Nevada, Las Vegas




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